Fig. 2 (period C). When the carbon content of the furnace feed is insufÞcient (periods B in Fig. 2), both the titanium and vanadium contents drop, as would be expected, since both titanium and vanadium are reduced from the slag by carbon, to report to the iron. In Fig. 2, period A .
It is heated and the iron oxides are (partially) reduced. When the temperature is high enough the iron (oxides) starts to soften and eventually melts. The melt (iron and slag) and the remaining coke collect in the lower part of the blast furnace: the hearth. The remaining coke forms a porous bed: the dead man.